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Other early forms of calendars originated in Mesoamerica, particularly in ancient Mayan civilization.These calendars were religiously and astronomically based, with 18 months in a year and 20 days in a month, plus five epagomenal days at the end of the year.One view is that time is part of the fundamental structure of the universe—a dimension independent of events, in which events occur in sequence.
Investigations of a single continuum called spacetime bring questions about space into questions about time, questions that have their roots in the works of early students of natural philosophy.
Temporal measurement has occupied scientists and technologists, and was a prime motivation in navigation and astronomy.
Lunar calendars were among the first to appear, either 12 or 13 lunar months (either 354 or 384 days).
Without intercalation to add days or months to some years, seasons quickly drift in a calendar based solely on twelve lunar months.
Lunisolar calendars have a thirteenth month added to some years to make up for the difference between a full year (now known to be about 365.24 days) and a year of just twelve lunar months.