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The three major constituents of air, and therefore of Earth's atmosphere, are nitrogen, oxygen, and argon.Water vapor accounts for roughly 0.25% of the atmosphere by mass.
Atmospheric effects become noticeable during atmospheric reentry of spacecraft at an altitude of around 120 km (75 mi).
Several layers can be distinguished in the atmosphere, based on characteristics such as temperature and composition.
Because the general pattern of the temperature/altitude profile is constant and measurable by means of instrumented balloon soundings, the temperature behavior provides a useful metric to distinguish atmospheric layers.
In this way, Earth's atmosphere can be divided (called atmospheric stratification) into five main layers.
Thus, the exosphere no longer behaves like a gas, and the particles constantly escape into space.